UPDATED: April, 2018 - Ubuntu Gnome 18.04
Ubuntu is fantastic, stable and truly a pleasure to use. For my friends and family, here is a cheatsheet for getting your system up and running.
The latest Ubuntu now comes with Gnome by default, so download from the usual location
Ubuntu Desktop Download
To ensure software will run and media will play, you're going to want to install the following packages.
sudo apt-get install ubuntu-restricted-extras vlc gimp alacarte vim
You may also want the most popular browser, Google Chrome.
cd ~/Downloads wget https://dl.google.com/linux/direct/google-chrome-stable_current_amd64.deb sudo dpkg -i google-chrome-stable_current_amd64.deb
And we'll need java, since it runs billions of devices
sudo add-apt-repository ppa:webupd8team/java sudo apt-get update sudo apt-get install oracle-java8-installer
And no computer should exist without minecraft (no I'm not kidding. lol)
sudo add-apt-repository ppa:flexiondotorg/minecraft sudo apt update sudo apt install minecraft-installer
Install and setup git
sudo apt-get install git git config --global user.email "firstname.lastname@example.org" git config --global user.name "Your Name" git config --global push.default simple
Sublime Text 3 is a great all-purpose editor for programmers, also installable via the command line with this:
wget -qO - https://download.sublimetext.com/sublimehq-pub.gpg | sudo apt-key add - sudo apt-get install apt-transport-https && echo "deb https://download.sublimetext.com/ apt/stable/" | sudo tee /etc/apt/sources.list.d/sublime-text.list sudo apt-get update sudo apt-get install sublime-text
And make sure you get your package manager
Setup your ssh-key for source control sites like github and bitbucket
ssh-keygen -t rsa -C "email@example.com" cat ~/.ssh/id_rsa.pub
then copy-n-paste the output into your account settings on github or bitbucket
Ruby, Rails & Tmux
Don't miss out on my other blog posts that walk you through installing Ruby & Rails and Tmux.
And That's All
You've got ubuntu + things it should have come with anyway.